simdegaSimdega District is situated in the southwestern part of the state of Jharkhand. It borders with Orissa and Chhattisgarh states. It comprises of the area, which was erstwhile the Simdega Subdivision of the district Gumla and was created on 30th April 2001. The district is situated between 200 10 min. to 200 40 min. north latitude and 840 0 min. to 840 34 min. east longitude. It consists of ten blocks/Circles namely Simdega, Kurdeg, Bolba, Thethaitangar, Kolebira, Bano, Jaldega, Pakartanr, Bansjore and Kersai.
In the ancient days Simdega was known by the name of Biru-Kaishalpur pargana, which was reigned by Raja Katangadeo. After his demise Maharaja Shivakarna subjugated it. Munda and Kharia tribes entered into this part in 1441 A.D and Oraon tribe settled here in about 1503 A.D from Rohtas. For some time it was part of the Kalinga Empire and subsequently in 1336 A.D Harideo of Gang dynasty (Ganga Vanshi Gajapati Royal Family of Kalinga-Utkala Empire, Orrissa) was made king of Biru. The Ancestors of Royal family still resides at Biru. At present Biru is situated at a distance of about 11 km from District headquarter, Simdega. Ganga Bishun Rohilla was famous freedom fighter from Simdega. The population of Simdega district according to 2001 Census is 514320 residing in 100049 households. Urbanization is very poor with 6.6 per cent population only and Simdega is the only town in the district. The room density in urban area is more as 6.6 per cent of the urban population resides in the 5.9 per cent households. The landscape is formed of hills and undulating platue. In the district 1194.50 sq. km areas are covered with forest Simdega district is primarily settled by the Scheduled Tribes with 70.2 per cent population, which is the highest among all the districts of Jharkhand closely followed by Gumla district with 67.2 per cent ST population. Majority of the STs belong to the Christian faith.